Sid Israel
Sunday, 11 March 2018 Written by 

Main Approaches in Development

The conversation about development in the first years emerged from a consideration of the welfare approach, which related to development as a “public product” along the lines of education or health, services that must be supplied to all those being served by the State or any other entity (such as nonprofit organizations).  The majority of the activities and funds that have been invested in the field of development were focused on supplying various welfare products, out of a belief that this supply would reduce poverty and promote development.  However, the welfare approach ignored political economic relationships among various entities, as well as local conditions preventing the ability of local players to take advantage of the assistance that had been given to them.

The “rights approach” of development brings a relationship to human rights into the consideration and implementation of development. In essence, this approach relates to service recipients in the same way as to team members participating on the playing field, who have the right to the fruits of the development.  The main point of field work, according to this approach, is accomplished through reinforcing populations, in order to make them capable of requesting development and taking advantage of the assistance given to them, on the one hand, and through strengthening the various government bodies, on the other hand, in order to enable them to identify the needs of the population and satisfy those needs, which also seem like rights.  In this way, an emphasis is placed on the obligation of the State to supply appropriate services and to strengthen the local population and transform it into being self – sufficient.

The sustainability approach or self – sustaining development began to develop in the 1970s, and received a significant impetus with the publication of the Brundtland Report by the UN in 1987. With the accumulation of testimonies regarding the influence of industrialization and modernization on natural resources, support for sustainable development grew, which relates to the needs of present and future generations in an egalitarian manner, and demands that the environmental influences of economic growth be taken into consideration in the planning process. The innovation of this approach is the fact that it relates to development in all the countries of the world, and not only in developing countries.  Nevertheless, the demand for sustainable development in developing countries is limited, in that development of this kind necessitates wider economic investment in long term processes, which developing countries, on principle, request that they not be required to do.

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